In physics, a moment is an expression that involves the combination of an act and its corresponding product, and thus it refers to how the outcome of the act is measured or placed. Moments can either be a time-step, in which case they are related to time, or a space-step, in which case they are associated with a volume. In a calculus example, the derivative of an act on a system is a moment, which is a function that expresses the change of value over time, thus relating it to a time variable. We can see then, that moments are really functions, and that the changes they undergo changes in the derivatives of those functions. Thus we can say that moments form the basis of macroscopic processes, such as changes in temperature, gravitational force, sound, or electricity.

The second law of thermodynamics, the conservation of energy, also tells us that, everywhere there is a source of heat, there will also be a source of energy. Now, the question that arises is whether or not the total moment of an atomic or ionic atom ever reaches the equilibrium. To answer this, we need to define what exactly the equilibrium means, since there is a lot of discussion on this topic. According to the general view, the equilibrium is the point at which a system starts to gain some energy, while losing some in order to maintain its stability. Now, for a process to reach the equilibrium, it would have to occur over an extended period of time, which can go on for hundreds or thousands of seconds, depending on its magnitude.

There are different views on how long a given system should elapse before it reaches a state of equilibrium. The favored view, favored by scientists, is that equilibrium occurs after some arbitrarily chosen number of successive moments, where the total force acting on the system is just right. However, others believe that the actual time taken for a system to reach a state of equilibrium depends on its interactions with its internal and external forces. A popular belief is that for extremely heavy objects, the shortest time would be at the point where their potential energy is completely replaced by their weight.

There are different ways in which to calculate the time needed for a given system to attain a given equilibrium, and one of them is known as the integral moment formula, which was derived by David Hilbert from his studies of electromagnetism. According to this formula, the time needed for a complete integration of the total moment of the system, together with the push and pull moments, to reach the state of absolute zero, is given. This was later used by Robert von Schrader to measure the time needed for pairs of particles to be made in the nucleus of an atom.

Now, we are ready to calculate the moments of mass and determine the equilibrium of objects. To do this, we must know how many wholesome atoms exist in every volume of our planet. The amount of these wholesome atoms is proportional to the weight of the Earth. Furthermore, the moments of the mass of objects is equal to the squares of the moments of their center locations.

Once we have established the relationship between the moment of inertia, the total moment of inertia, the moments of accelerations and the moments of angular momentum, we can determine the torque that is formed between any two moving parts by multiplying their moments of acceleration. A wheel with its pole pieces rotating around a y-axis has a moment of spin, while its axle will have a positive moment of torque, due to the torque applied by the flywheel. Likewise, for a given axle, the moment of torque will be dependent on the values of the moments of acceleration, which it gets from the poles of the wheels spinning around the axis. Thus, the torque will be a derivative of the angular momentum. If we know the formula for calculating the moments of inertia of rotating parts, then we can calculate the torque between any two moving parts using the formula.