In its most basic sense, the word “world” generally refers to all things existing in the universe, to everything which exists or is existing. The nature of this world is conceptualized in many different fields. Some philosophical conceptions see the entire world as separate and distinct while others speak of a “unity of worlds” where everything exists in a state of eternal realism. Still others believe the world to be a complex entity of multiple interacting entities each with a function to interact with the other entities.
No matter what world view you choose, there are several common notions that you will encounter in the various philosophies of the world. Among these most common notions are that: The world is made up of individual beings. This world view suggests that each individual is an independent and self-existing being with its own thoughts, beliefs, desires, and goals. There is no such thing as a universal entity controlling the actions and decisions of all other entities.
Another world concept is that there are different kinds of souls existing in parallel with the human one. souls are believed to exist separately from humans and are therefore capable of rationalizing and understanding the actions and decisions of humans. However, there are also entities which are considered to be souls whether or not they are conscious of their own activities. For example, some philosophers believe that insects are souls not because they have an animal form but because they are extremely sensitive to their environment and have a hard time avoiding it. This idea is widely accepted in Eastern philosophies.
A world view which believes the world is made up of living entities includes animals, plants, microorganisms, and unicellular organisms. These living entities are said to be capable of communication with each other, using concepts of language and emotions. There are also beings which are classified as immaterial entities because they do not have a physical body and cannot communicate. There are also beings which are said to be timeless entities because they have never been born, have no definite form, and cannot be explained using science. This world view also discounts the role of God because he is believed to create the world in order for us to live in it.
A more radical alternative to this world view is the Anti-conscience, which holds that all life is meaningless and that humans are the product of their world view. According to this philosophy, people have a choice to choose to either live in a world free from gods and goddesses and where everything is given by someone else, or live in a world in which they are the creator of everything, where they are the recipient of everything good and bad. This philosophy is closer to mysticism than to traditional philosophy.
The philosophy which opposes the fixed world views is called Pantheism. It follows that the world and everything in it is one. This pantheistic philosophy says that life and the universe are one and that there is no such thing as separate world, individual god or devil and thus there is no need for philosophy. This is similar to Materialism, which denies that anything exists outside the world. Both of these theories are the result of the scientific revolution, when scientist were able to prove that everything is made of atoms. These two theories are the closest to naturalism that exist and to pantheism which believes that the world is rational and nothing is irrational and therefore meaningless.